This article is reprinted with permission, from his blog Ecospirit 16 Jan 2016.
After years of fraught negotiations, we have a climate accord. Just getting 195 countries with different, often conflicting, interests to agree was a miracle of sorts. The document breaks new ground by aiming to hold the average temperature rise below 2C, to 1.5C, and reaching carbon neutrality by the “second half of the century.” The road map for how to get there is less clear. The INDCs (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions – whew!) are not binding, relying upon peer pressure at periodic reviews to curtail carbon emissions even further than current pledges, which would take us down to 3.5C, still well beyond the threshold of climate catastrophe. The current pledges do not go into effect until 2020, though there will be an opportunity for revising upward with a review process every five years. This is not tough enough, fast enough.
In a post this week at Common Dreams, Jeremy Brecher, a labor historian, notes that the governments of the world accepted no accountability in Paris, only going on record with a stronger common goal. Since they, and to some degree the U.N. as well, are accountable to the vested interests which put them in power, it is up to the people to stand up and force them to be “accountable to the world's real owners,” the people. In a more detailed piece, “A Non-Violent Insurgency for Climate Protection,” Brecher argues that there is legal ground for the people to rise up in multiple acts of civil disobedience to force governments, who are trustees guarding the air, oceans and forests, to abide by the laws that safeguard these critically endangered commons in a “global law-enforcing climate insurgency.” The foundation for this is called in the US thepublic trust doctrine, which is based upon the Justinian code of 535 A.D., naming certain areas asres communes, “common things” that are not held by the state. Hence the beleaguered notion of the commons. As Brecher puts it eloquently, “The governments of the world may rule the world, but they don't run the world – that is the common property of humanity.”
Fortunately, to defend that common property, an independent climate protection movement has emerged, which Brecher dates to the mass International Day of Climate Action in 2009, the most widespread political action day in planetary history. This has grown in recent years into the Blockadia movement, expertly documented by Naomi Klein. Increasingly, these actions are designed as civil disobedience aimed at enforcing fundamental legal and constitutional principles that are being flouted by the authorities they are disobeying. By calling these abuses into question, they are performing their legal duty, planetary citizens mounting what legal scholar James Gray Pope calls a “constitutional insurgency.” This insurgency aims to transform the world order, which Brecher argues is more attainable than challenging individual nation-states, and has in fact happened more than once in our lifetimes. Crucially, Brecher notes that the current world order, which protects the global corporations, especially Big Fossils, is “illegitimate but mutable.”
As law-enforcing or constitutional insurgents, activists are now invoking the necessity defence, which was unexpectedly successful in the case of Friend Jay O'Hara, when he and Ken Ward blocked a coal vessel at Brayton Point, Mass with his lobster boat (photo above). Defendants who blocked an oil train in 2014 in Washington state are mounting the same defense. We shall see what the court's response is. Even if the courts don't accept their arguments, these actions can “redefine what climate action is all about.” If legal actions continue to fail, Brecher envisions civil society tribunals chaired by senior retired judges and other respected figures calling expert witnesses with publicly acknowledged credentials. It's all about civil society moving into the black hole of accountability which the current world order lacks. I am convinced that civil society, in carefully strategized actions, their trials managed by expert environmental lawyers, can affect the misguided but mutable world order.
Since governments serve as trustees of the commons, environmental lawyers are working to utilize trust law to enforce the people's rights to enjoying the benefits of these commons. It may seem far-fetched – one environmental lawyer calls these kinds of challenges “hail Mary passes” - but successful use of trust law could require fossil fuel companies to pay damages for the colossal waste committed against the public trust. Fair damages would pay most of what is required to transition to a zero-carbon economy, and build the global Green Fund to help poor nations adapt to climate change.
Governments of the world need to be made accountable to the world's real owners. Yes, Jeremy Brecher, according to the Justinian code. But nobody owns the world, as the indigenous peoples will tell us. Ultimately, the world is God's, and the building climate insurgency is about the people rising up to return the Commons to Her. Or if you prefer, to Gaia, the evolutionary miracle which brought this perfectly-placed third rock to superabundant life. Earth stewardship in these critical times means joining the insurgency to defend Gaia, with whatever gifts we have.
Further reading and resources:
- Range of reactions to the COP21 agreement 2015
- Nonviolent protest Sep 2015 and Jan 2016 trial statements by the Delta5 oil-train blockaders.
- 16-18 Jan 2016 Beyond Extreme Energy pilgrimage against fracking in PA.
- 19 Jan 2016 Climate Justice Alliance's Our Power Plan; 44 NGOs call for EPA action.
- Songs for peace and earthcare activists including videos from COP21
- Tools for activists, artists, street theater by faith and ecojustice groups
- USA New Economy resources
- UK Quakernomics blog and New Economics Foundation
- Canada Leap Manifesto and updates
- Women’s Climate Action Agenda (WCAA) (just published 2016) based on the 2015 Women's Climate Summit, a well-researched compilation of real ecojustice solutions; see pp.86-94 for a checklist of allies. Summarized in Prominent International Rights of Nature Tribunal Offers Earth-Driven, Not Market-Driven, Solutions to Climate Change 7 Dec 2015 at COP21.